The New IRAM KID Array 2 (NIKA2) is a dual-band camera operating with three frequency-multiplexed kilopixels arrays of Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKID) cooled at 150mK. NIKA2 is designed to observe simultaneously the intensity at 1.15 and 2.0 mm. In addition, it allows for polarisation observations at 1.15 mm. NIKA2 is built by an international consortium, led by the Institute Neel (Grenoble, France).
Since October 2015, NIKA2 is installed at the IRAM 30m telescope. After a phase of upgrades, tests, and commissioning, NIKA2 has been offered to the astronomy community for total power observations since October 2017. Polarimetry at 1mm has been commissioned in 2022 and observations of the B-FUN large polarimetry program have started.
Since October 2019, the PIIC software for the reduction of total-power NIKA2 data is available for download together with an extensive, regularly updated tutorial (see the PIIC dedicated page).
- NIKA2 observing time estimator
- The five Guaranteed Time Large Programs
- Technical Documentation
- Science runs (October 2017 - January 2023)
- Commissioning & special test runs
- Support teams
NIKA2 in the web:
Number of KIDs
NIKA2 2 mm/150 GHz
9 ± 1 mJy*s1/2
NIKA2 1 mm/260 GHz
30 ± 3 mJy*s1/2
Comments: The half-power beam widths and the NEFDs are taken from Perotto et al. 2020. The NEFDs are extrapolated to a sky opacity of 0 and 90 deg. elevation.
NIKA2 observing time estimator
A Python script to estimate observing times is available together with a document describing the approach and giving examples. Please find it here.
The five Guaranteed Time Large Programs
Four Large Programs for NIKA2 in guaranteed time were submitted to the Program Committee for the deadline in September 2016, and one for the March 2017 deadline. All 5 have been rated high by the PC and will be observed. Here, we provide the proposal abstracts together with the list of sources and map sizes. These are "fenced" against new continuum 2mm/1mm mapping projects at the 30m or NOEMA.
The three large programs in Phase I have started observations in October 2017. The Phase II large program on nearby galaxies, 160-16, has started in the summer semester 2019. The B-Fun NIKA2Pol project has started in the winter semester 2021/22. <CK 08-Feb-2022>
- Source list
- Phase I
Galactic Star Formation with NIKA2 - GASTON (122-16) PI is Nicolas Peretto. Abstract: The IMF is a fundamental global output of the star formation process, and the question of its origin and universality has been a long-standing open issue. While the base of the IMF (0.1 to 1 Msun) may result from Jeans-like fragmentation of interstellar filaments, the problem of how the most extreme stellar objects (brown dwarfs, intermediate- and high-mass stars) build up their masses remains unsettled. The high-sensitivity and fast mapping capability of the NIKA2 camera offer the unique opportunity to detect large populations of low-brightness sources, and probe star-forming regions as never before. We propose to use this new instrument to: i. perform a complete survey of pre-brown-dwarf cores in two nearby star-forming regions, ii. map the intertwined populations of interstellar filaments and intermediate to high-mass cores within rich galactic plane star-forming regions; iii. use the dual band capability of NIKA2 at 1.2mm and 2mm to constrain the dust properties in a broad range of environments and reduce mass uncertainties by a factor of 3. Altogether, these observations will provide new insight on the earliest stages of star formation across both ends of the stellar IMF.
The NIKA2 Cosmological Legacy Survey (N2CLS) (192-16) PIs: Guilaine Lagache, Alexandre Beelen, Nicolas Ponthieu Abstract: Using 300h of the NIKA2 Guaranteed Time, we will map the star formation at high redshift in two of the most popular fields. N2CLS will reach for the first time the confusion noise at the 30m, in 160 square arcminutes in GOODS-N. In COSMOS, N2CLS sensitivity will at least match or outperform the sensitivity of the S2CLS survey at 850 microns on 0.5 square degree. N2CLS will detect hundreds of dust-obscured optically-faint galaxies during their major episodes of formation in the early universe. It will fully open a new window on the faint and high-redshift dusty Universe and answer the outstanding issue of whether dusty star-formation contributes to early galaxy evolution. It will uniquely probe the transition at z~3-4 of the cosmic star-formation history between the predominantly unobscured growth in the early Universe and the obscured star formation, driven by the build-up of the most massive galaxies during the peak of cosmic assembly. The availability of this uniquely large sample of mm-selected galaxies with superb supporting multi-wavelength data will provide the opportunity to address the history of star formation, dust production and the growth of large-scale structures.
High-resolution tSZ observations of a large sample of clusters of galaxies (NIKA2SZ) (199-16) PIs: Frédéric Mayet, Laurence Perotto Homepage: NIKA2LPSZ Abstract: The development of precision cosmology with clusters of galaxies requires high angular resolution observations to extend the understanding of galaxy clusters towards high redshift. The NIKA2 camera at the IRAM 30 m telescope is the only instrument currently in operation that is suited for this kind of observations, given its resolution, sensitivity and dual-band observation capability. We intend to observe a large sample of clusters of galaxies at high redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9), selected from the Planck and ACT catalogs. We have formed a representative cluster sample for redshift evolution and cosmological studies, with a homogeneous coverage in cluster mass as reconstructed from the integrated Compton parameter. We will use the SZ-dedicated pipeline that we have developed for the SZ observation with the NIKA camera. Our primary objective is to produce unprecedented high-quality deliverables (tSZ maps and pressure profiles) for all clusters of the sample. NIKA2 data will be complemented with ancillary data including X-ray, optical and radio observations. The full dataset will lead to significant improvements on the use of clusters of galaxies to draw cosmological constraints.
- Phase II
Interpreting the Millimetre Emission of Galaxies with IRAM and NIKA (IMEGIN) (160-16) PI is Suzanne Madden Abstract: The mm part of the spectrum is one of the least explored parts of a galaxy’s spectral energy distribution (SED), yet it contains emission from three fundamentally important physical processes. These processes are thermal emission from dust, free-free emission from ionized gas and synchrotron emission from charged particles moving in the galactic magnetic field. We are proposing to use the NIKA2 camera to observe a sample of 22 nearby galaxies that also have considerable ancillary data across the SED from the radio to the ultra-violet. We will investigate the dust emissivity, the relationship between the three physical processes and their relation to star formation and the gas-to-dust ratio. As the sample galaxies are of large angular size we will be able to carry out this project in a spatially resolved way and hence investigate the different environments found within galaxies.
Probing the B-Field in star-forming Filaments Using NIKA2-Pol (B-FUN) (015-17) PI: Philippe Andre Abstract: Recent Herschel and Planck observations of Galactic interstellar clouds support a paradigm of star formation in which magnetized filaments play a central role. Herschel results indicate that most cores/stars form in dense, supercritical filaments of ~0.1 pc width, and Planck polarization data suggest that the formation and evolution of these filaments is largely controlled by magnetic fields. The low resolution of Planck polarization data is however insufficient to probe individual cores along filaments and understand the role of B fields in filament evolution and fragmentation. To make decisive progress in this area, we propose a 1.2 mm polarimetric imaging survey with NIKA2-POL of ~8 nearby star-forming filaments spanning a range of line masses from marginally supercritical to highly supercritical. The proposed observations will constrain the role of magnetic fields in channeling matter from filaments to prestellar cores and will determine whether the B field remains roughly perpendicular to the filaments, as observed by Planck on larger scales, or becomes more parallel to the filaments in their dense interior, which would have profound implications for core formation.
- Astronomical papers:
Several proceedings papers of the mm Universe conference 2023 (Grenoble/France) have appeared on ArXiv
Bing et al. 2023, NIKA2 Cosmological Legacy Survey: Survey Description and Galaxy Number Counts, accepted by A&A ArXiv
Sai et al. 2022, Which Part of Dense Cores Feeds Material to Protostars? The Case of L1489 IRS, A&A, 925, 12 ADS
Muñoz-Echeverría et al. 2022, Multi-probe analysis of the galaxy cluster CL J1226.9+3332: Hydrostatic mass and hydrostatic-to-lensing bias,A&A, 671A, 28, ADS
Rose et al. 2022, The variability of brightest cluster galaxies at high radio frequencies, MNRAS, 509, 2869 ArXiv
Lestrade et al. 2022, Candidate cosmic filament in the GJ526 field, mapped with the NIKA2 camera, accepted for A&A ArXiv
Ferragamo et al. 2022, Comparison of hydrostatic and lensing cluster mass estimates: A pilot study in MACS J0647.7+7015, ADS
Rose et al. 2022, The variability of brightest cluster galaxies at high radio frequencies, ADS
Gianfagna et al. 2021, Exploring the hydrostatic mass bias in MUSIC clusters: application to the NIKA2 mock sample, ADS
Luppe et al. 2021, Observability of dusty debris discs around M-stars, ADS
Ricci et al. 2020, The XXL Survey. XLIV. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich mapping of a low-mass cluster at z ∼ 1: a multi-wavelength approach, ADS
Keruzore et al. 2020, Exploiting NIKA2/XMM-Newton imaging synergy for intermediate-mass high-z galaxy clusters within the NIKA2 SZ large program. Observations of ACT-CL J0215.4+0030 at z ˜ 0.9, ADS
Torne et al. 2020, Detection of the magnetar XTE J1810-197 at 150 and 260 GHz with the NIKA2 kinetic inductance detector camera, ADS
Ruppin et al. 2020, Unveiling the Merger Dynamics of the Most Massive MaDCoWS Cluster at z = 1.2 from a Multiwavelength Mapping of Its Intracluster Medium Properties, ApJ
Conference proceedings of mm Universe 2022 @ NIKA2 - Observing the mm Universe with the NIKA2 Camera
Conference proceedings of mm Universe 2020 @ NIKA2 - Observing the mm Universe with the NIKA2 Camera
Sicilia-Aguilar et al. 2019, IRAM and Gaia views of multi-episodic star formation in IC 1396A The origin and dynamics of the Class 0 protostar at the edge of an HII region, A&A (622, 118) ADS
Adam et al. 2018, Sub-structure and merger detection in resolved NIKA Sunyaev-Zel'dovich images of distant clusters, A&A (614, A118)
Romero et al. 2018, A multi-instrument non-parametric reconstruction of the electron pressure profile in the galaxy cluster CLJ1226.9+3332, A&A (613, 39)
Ritacco, A., Macías Pérez, J.-F., Ponthieu, N. et al. 2018, NIKA 150 GHz polarization observations of the Crab nebula and its spectral energy distribution, A&A, 616, A35
Adam et al. 2017, Mapping the hot gas temperature in galaxy clusters using X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich imaging, A&A, 606, 64 ADS
Bracco et al. 2017, Probing changes of dust properties along a chain of solar-type prestellar and protostellar cores in Taurus with NIKA, A&A, 604, 52 ADS
Ritacco, A., Ponthieu, N, Catalano, A., et al., 2017, Polarimetry at millimeter wavelengths with the NIKA camera: calibration and performance, A&A, 599, A34, ADS
Chacon-Tanarro et al. 2017, Search for grain growth towards the center of L1544, A&A, 606, A142 ADS
Ruppin, F., Adam, R., Comis, B., et al. 2016, Non parametric deprojection of NIKA SZ observations: pressure distribution in the Planck-discovered cluster PSZ1 G045.85+57.71, A&A, in press ADS
Adam, R., Bartalucci, I., Pratt, G. W., et al. 2016, Mapping the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect toward MACS J0717.5+3745 with NIKA, A&A, ADS
Adam, R., Comis, B., Bartalucci, I., et al. 2016, High angular resolution Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations of MACS J1423.8+2404 with NIKA: Multiwavelength analysis, A&A, 586, 122 ADS
Adam, R., Comis, B., Macias-Perez, J.-F., et al., 2015, Pressure distribution of the high-redshift cluster of galaxies CL J1226.9+3332 with NIKA, A&A, 576, A12 ADS
Adam, R., Comis, B., Macias-Perez, J.-F, et al., 2014, First observation of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with kinetic inductance detectors, A&A, 569, 66 ADS
- NIKA related papers
Aumont, J., Macías Pérez, J.-F., Ritacco, A., Ponthieu, N., Mangilli, A., 2018, Absolute calibration of the polarisation angle for future CMB B-mode experiments from current and future measurements of the Crab nebula, (submitted to A&A) arxiv
Chastenet et al., SOFIA/HAWC+ observations of the Crab Nebula: dust properties from polarized emission, MNRAS, 516,ADS
- Instrument/detectors papers:
Catalano et al. 2016, The NIKA2 commissioning campaign: performance and first results, arxiv
Calvo et al. 2016, The NIKA2 instrument, a dual-band kilopixel KID array for millimetric astronomy, arxiv
Bourrion et al. 2016, NIKEL_AMC: Readout electronics for the NIKA2 experiment, arxiv
Ritacco et al. 2016, First polarised light with the NIKA camera, JLTP, Volume 184, Issue 3-4, pp. 724-732, 08/2016 arxiv
Goupy et al. 2016, Microfabrication technology for large LEKID arrays : from NIKA2 to future applications, arxiv
Monfardini et al. 2014, Latest NIKA Results and the NIKA-2 Project, JLTP 176, 787, arxiv
Catalano et al. 2014, Performance and calibration of the NIKA camera at the IRAM 30 m telescope, A&A 569, A9, arxiv
Calvo et al. 2013, Improved mm-wave photometry for kinetic inductance detectors, A&A, 551, L12 ADS
Bourrion et al. 2012, NIKEL: Electronics and data acquisition for kilopixels kinetic inductance camera, Journal of Instrumentation, 7, 07, pp. 7014. arXiv
Monfardini et al. 2011, A Dual-band Millimeter-wave Kinetic Inductance Camera for the IRAM 30 m Telescope, ApJS, 194, 2, article id. 24. arXiv
- Ph.D. thesis:
Aurélien Bideaud (2007-2010) - NEEL - Supervisors: A. Benoit and F.-X. Desert - Development of a camera for millimeter-wave radioastronomy.
Markus Roesch (2010 - 2013) - IRAM - Supervisors: K. Schuster and M. Siegel - Development of lumped element kinetic inductance detectors for mm-wave astronomy at the IRAM 30m telescope.
Antonio D’Addabbo (2011 - 2014) - NEEL - Supervisors: A. Monfardini and P. de Bernardis - Applications of Kinetic Inductance Detectors to Astronomy and Particle Physics.
Rémi Adam (2012-2015) - LPSC - Advisors: J.F. Macías-Pérez and F.X. Désert - Observation of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (in French).
Grégoire Coiffard (2012 - 2015) - IRAM - Supervisor: K. Schuster - Development of kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter astronomy and related problems in material science and process technology.
Alessia Ritacco (2013-2016) - LPSC - Advisors: J.F. Macías-Pérez, Alessandro Monfardini, Andrea Catalan and Nicolas Ponthieu - Polarimetry at millimeter wavelengths with the instruments NIKA and NIKA2.
Florian Ruppin (2016 - 2018) - LPSC - Supervisor: F. Mayet - Cosmology from Sunyaev-Zel’dovich observations of galaxy clusters with the NIKA2.
Shibo Shu (2017 - 2019) - IRAM - Supervisors: K. Schuster and E. Driessen - Large format LEKID arrays for millimeter-wave astronomy.
Aina Andrianasolo (2017 - 2019) - IPAG - Supervisors: F.-X. Desert and N. Ponthieu - Measuring the sky polarization with KIDS on the ground with NIKA2 and preparing satellite observations.
Cryostat & Electronics
- Acquisition and tuning
Pool observations provides information on the observing modes offered for NIKA2 and examples of the scripts that you must prepare to observe your project.
Observing session provides an example of a typical session with NIKA2 at the 30m telescope.
Pointing sources and calibrators provides a list of pointing sources and calibrators.
Polarimetric observations provides information for changing from total power to polarimetric observations mode and vice versa, in a checklist form.
- Data reduction
- IDL pipeline
Science runs (October 2017 - January 2023)
Current Semester: Winter 2022
6-13 December 2022 - w22 Pool #1 [= Cryo Run 74, 62nd of NIKA2]
10-17 January 2023 - w22 Pool #2 [= Cryo Run 75, 63rd of NIKA2]
17-24 January 2023 - w22 Pool #3 [= Cryo Run 75, 63rd of NIKA2]
24-31 January 2023 - w22 Pool #4 [= Cryo Run 75, 63rd of NIKA2]
Previous Semester: Summer 2022
10-11 October 2022 - s22 Pool preliminaries [= Cryo Run 72, 60th of NIKA2]
11-18 October 2022 - s22 Pool #1 [= Cryo Run 72, 60th of NIKA2]
18-25 October 2022 - s22 Pool #2 [= Cryo Run 72, 60th of NIKA2]
25 Oct. - 1 Nov. 2022 - s22 Pool #3 [= Cryo Run 72, 60th of NIKA2]
8-15 November 2022 - s22 Pool #4 [= Cryo Run 73, 61th of NIKA2]
15-22 November 2022 - s22 Pool #5 [= Cryo Run 73, 61th of NIKA2]
22-29 November 2022 - s22 Pool #6 [= Cryo Run 73, 61th of NIKA2]
Previously accepted projects in open time.
Commissioning & special test runs
Phase I [total power] (October 2015 - April 2017)
1st run of NIKA2 (test): 29-October-2015 till 10-November-2015. Installation, cool down at the 30m, testing/debugging/developing. Alignment. [= Run 13 of a NIKA instrument ; numbering useful for analysis software, count numbers of cooling down the cryostat <=> Cryo Run]
2nd run of NIKA2 (test): 24-November-2015 till 02-December-2015. Continue tests started during run 1, in particular Beam maps and NEFD with the 13 NIKEL boards assembled the last days of run 1. [= Run 14 of a NIKA instrument <=> Cryo Run 14]
3rd run of NIKA2 (test): 12-January-2016 till 01-February-2016. Implementation of new NIKEL boards; the 20 data lines of NIKA2 are foreseen to be plugged simultaneously. With the 3 arrays fully read, continue and redo tests started with runs 1 & 2, in particular Beam maps and NEFD. [= Run 15 of a NIKA instrument]
4th run of NIKA2 (test): 1-March-2016 till 15-March-2016. Continue tests started with previous runs, in particular investigate deeper beam patterns (XY focus, beam maps), synchronization, array 1 & 3 performances vs electronic boards, NEFD, mapping strategies. [= Run 16 of a NIKA instrument]
Dark run: 4-May-2016. Test sensitivity of NIKA2 to external electromagnetic perturbations, with the entrance window of the cryostat closed. [= Run 17 of a NIKA instrument]
5th run of NIKA2 (test): 16-September-2016 till 11-October-2016. Upgrade NIKA2 with new dichroic, new corrugated lenses, new 2mm array, new NIKEL boards (get the 20 lines with homogeneous electronics, v3); redo better the tests started with previous runs (mostly beam maps in best weather conditions, but also various types of scan to investigate deeper beams and noise, synchronization, NEFD, skydips, mapping strategies, possibly polarization. (window not changed due to defects on new one). Alignment. [= Run 18 of a NIKA instrument]
6th run of NIKA2 (test): 25-October-2016 till 1-November-2016. Continue NIKA2 commissioning. [= Run 19 of a NIKA instrument]
7th run of NIKA2 (test): 6-December-2016 till 13-December-2016. Test DRO based external calibrator, continue NIKA2 commissioning. [= Run 20 of a NIKA instrument]
8th run of NIKA2 (test): 9-January-2017 to 13-January-2017, then 23-January to 27-January. Reverse 1mm bands 0.1K lenses to smooth version + adjust fixation of cold mirrors block (M7-M8) to get better radio alignment of the internal optics (degraded during run 5 intervention), short test on sky to see effect of the intervention. [= Run 21 of a NIKA instrument]
9th run of NIKA2 (test): 21-February-2017 to 28-February-2017. Resume NIKA2 commissioning after run 8 intervention. [= Run 22 of a NIKA instrument]
10th run of NIKA2 (test): 18-April-2017 to 25-April-2017. End of commissioning phase 1, science verification. [= Cryo Run 23]
Phase II [Polarization, Tests] (June 2017 - November 2021)
11th run of NIKA2 (test): 8-June-2017 to 13-June-2017. Start commissioning phase 2: polarization. [= Cryo Run 24]
13th run of NIKA2 (test): 21-November-2017 to 28-November-2017. (Alignment done in run 12). Continuation of commissioning in polarization mode. [= Cryo Run 26]
16th run of NIKA2 (test): 6 to 13-March-2018. Continuation of commissioning in polarization mode. [= Cryo Run 29] (Run lost due to bad weather)
19th run of NIKA2 (test): 12 to 17-June-2018. Continuation of commissioning in polarisation mode (redo run 16 lost due to bad weather). + Spectral characterization with a Martin Puplett (named PIMP): 18 to 22 June 2018. [= Cryo Run 32]
Change of dichroic and entrance window: 27 to 29-August-2018. Results of June's PIMP measurement; remove 2nd dichroic and install 3rd dichroic; preparation of PIMP upgrade.
20th and 21st run of NIKA2 (test): 5-6 September (N2R20) and 18 to 25-September-2018 (N2R21). Performance characterization after replacement of the dichroic. [Sep 5-6 dichroic = Cryo Run 33 ; Sep 5-6 polar = Cryo Run 34; Sep 18-25 = Cryo Run 35] Because dichroic no.3 showed problems, the 2nd dichroic was re-installed between 5-6 September and 18-25 September. We are continuing with dichroic no.2..
25th run of NIKA2 (test): 04 to 11-December-2018. Continuation of polarisation commissioning. [ = Cryo Run 39]
31st run of NIKA2 (test): 16 and 17-May-2019. Short DAQ v3 tests. Sep 6: Checks and and test in preparation for the IRAM School (Sep 7-10);(not really a test run) [ = Cryo Run 45]
32nd run of NIKA2 (test): 7 to 10-September-2019. Sep 7-10 use of NIKA2 at the 9th IRAM 30m Summerschool. (not really a test run) [ = Cryo Run 46]
33rd run of NIKA2 (test): Sep 11th 2019 tests of DAQ v3 in preparation of commissioning run. 17 to 24-September-2019. Updated DAQ v3 tests, PIMP, external calibrator, polarization. [ = Cryo Run 47]
42nd run of NIKA2 (test): Feb 25th - Mar 3rd 2020. (Alignment done just befor run 38, and re-checked here). Polarimetry commissioning [ = Cryo Run 54]
44th run of NIKA2 (test): Aug 6th - Aug 29th 2020. Summer testing festival [ = Cryo Run 56]. Telescope stopped.
46th run of NIKA2 (test): Nov 10-17 2020. Polarimetry commissioning [ = Cryo Run 58].
53rd run of NIKA2 (test): Jul 9 2021. A2 recent excess noise investigation. [= Cryo Run 65]
54th run of NIKA2 (test): Sep 21-25 2021. New Sweep, Check up before pool, Polarization tests including external calibrator source [ = Cryo Run 66].
- Overall coordinators:
- NIKA2 team:
Alessandro Monfardini <email@example.com> (PI, IN)
Alain Benoit <firstname.lastname@example.org>
François-Xavier Désert <email@example.com> (IPAG)
Martino Calvo <firstname.lastname@example.org> (IN)
Johannes Goupy <email@example.com> (IN)
Nicolas Ponthieu <firstname.lastname@example.org> (IPAG)
Juan Macias-Perez <email@example.com> (LPSC)
Andrea Catalano <firstname.lastname@example.org> (LPSC)
Laurence Perotto <email@example.com> (LPSC)
- IRAM/Granada NIKA2 support team:
Miguel Sanchez (30m Station Manager, <firstname.lastname@example.org>)
Alessia Ritacco (commissioning of polarization capabilities, <email@example.com>)
Albrecht Sievers (IMBfits/Data, NCS/pako, <firstname.lastname@example.org>)
Bilal Ladjelate (former postdoc of IRAM/Granada and Pool manager until April 2021, <email@example.com>)
- IRAM/Grenoble NIKA2 support team:
Created: 2015.AUG.05 by Israel Hermelo. This page is maintained by AR, SL, CK, and the NIKA2 team.